The Porsche Sports Car

A review of The Porsche Sports Car, covering development, important features, and technical data of each model in the range, from the 356 to the 993 Turbo S.

In this Article, I offer a nostalgic look at the Porsche Sports Car, one of an elite group of classic cars, which was manufactured during the period 1948 to 1995.

Ferdinand Porsche would have to wait until after WW2 to fulfil his dream of creating a sports car from the Volkswagen Beetle.

1949

In 1949, the 356 was the first Porsche sports car, and was debuted at the Geneva Motor Show where it created immediate interest.

Owners of the 356 were keen to race the car as well as drive it on the streets. As a result, orders reached some 10,000 units by 1964. When production of the Porsche 356 ended in 1965, 76,313 cars had been built.

1964

In 1964, the 911 Porsche sports car made it debut. It was a 2+2, with an air cooled, rear mounted, 2 litre, 6-cylinder, 130 bhp engine.

1966

In 1966, the more powerful Porsche 911S was launched with a 160 bhp engine.

1969

In 1969, fuel injection was added to the 911S, and the 911E became the new middle of the range model.

1970

In 1970, the engine capacity of all 911’s was increased to 2195 cc.

1972

In 1972, all models received a larger 2341 cc engine. This was known as the “2.4L” engine. The 911S was the top of the range.

1973

In 1973, the next car to be introduced was the 911 Carrera 2.7 RS. It had stiffened suspension and a distinctive rear spoiler.

Carrera was Spanish for “race”, and the RS meant “racing sports”.

1974

In 1974, the 911 Carrera 3.0 RS appeared, with Bosch fuel injection and a 230 bhp engine.

It was designed with racing in mind, and had a number of successes.

In 1974, the 911 Turbo was introduced. The engine was a turbocharged 3 litre, 260 bhp unit.

Known as the Type 930, it had distinctive wide wheel arches and a large rear spoiler.

1976

In 1976, the Carrera 3.0 was introduced. It used the 930, 3 litre, Turbo engine with Bosch fuel injection, but without the turbocharger.

1978

By 1978, the engine of the 930 Turbo had increased to 3.3 litres.

In that year, the latest Porsche sports car to be introduced was the 3 litre, 911SC. In essence, this was a Carrera 3.0 with a detuned engine.

1980

In 1980, the power of the 911SC was increased to 188 bhp which, by 1983, was further increased to 204 bhp in non US models.

1982

In 1982, Porsche introduced the first 911 Cabriolet, the last such model being seen on the 356 in the 60’s.

Its success meant that a Cabriolet would be offered in the future.

1984

In 1984, the 911SC was replaced by the 911 3.2 Carrera Porsche sports car. The higher compression engine developed 231 bhp in non US markets.

All Carrera models were offered as a fixed head coupe, cabriolet and targa (with removable hard top) versions.

This was, in effect, the last version of the original 911 series.

Also, that year, Porsche introduced the Supersport, which had a striking resemblance to the 930 Turbo, with wide wheel arches and the distinctive rear spoiler.

1989

In 1989, the 911 Speedster was launched, which was a low roof version of the Cabriolet. It was available as a narrow bodied version, or in the style of the Supersport.

Also that year, the 911 Type 964 series made it debut.

It was introduced as the 911 Carrera, 4 Porsche sports car, with a 3.6 litre engine. A rear spoiler was activated at high speed. The “4” signified four wheel drive.

1990

In 1990, the Carrera 2 was launched, with drive on the rear wheels only.

The 930 Turbo experienced unprecedented demand in the late 1980’s.

In 1990, the Type 930 was replaced by the Type 964 Turbo, Porsche sports car, with a 3.3 litre, turbocharged engine.

1992

In 1992, the 3.3 litre 964 Turbo S was launched, with lowered suspension, and designed for performance.

In 1992, the 964 3.8 Carrera RS, Porsche sports car, was launched.

It had the Turbo Style body, similar to the Supersport, a 3.8 litre engine, and a large fixed rear spoiler in place of the moveable one from the Carrera 2 and 4.

1993

In 1993, the 3.6 litre 964 Turbo, Porsche sports car, producing 360 bhp, was introduced to complement other 964 models.

A year later, a limited edition 964 3.6 Turbo S appeared, available with the classic Porsche body style, or with the exclusive Slant nose option.

1994

In 1994, the Type 993 was introduced, and represented the final series of air cooled 911’s, originally appearing in 1964.

The revised body styling was smoother, with a more aerodynamic front end, and a new rear.

The engine remained at 3.6 litres, but power increaseed to 272 bhp. In 1996, it was further increased to 286 bhp.

The Carrera 4 and 2 versions were available, the latter being simply called Carrera.

A rear wheel drive 993 3.8 RS, Porsche sports car, was introduced, with a 3.8 litre engine, developing 300 bhp.

1995

In 1995, the 993 3.6 Turbo, Porsche sports car, was launched.

It was the first of the Porsche cars to be fitted with twin turbochargers, which produced 408 bhp from the 3.6 litre engine.

1997

In 1997, the 993 3.6 Turbo S was launched, developing 424 bhp.

This represented the last air cooled 911 Turbo.

1998

In 1998, the Type 996 was introduced, in which the air cooled 911 was replaced with a water cooled version.

The body styling of all previous 911’s was based on the original 1963 version. However, the 996 incorporated a redesigned body shell.

The 996 911 formed the basis of a whole series of variants, such as the Carrera 4 and “Turbo Look” Carrera 4S, the racing orientated GT3, and the 996 Turbo.

This marked the end of the classic Porsche sports car.

Beyond 2000, Porsche produced a number of exciting sports cars which, sadly, falls beyond the time frame of this review.

Perhaps this stroll down memory lane might have answered, or at least shed light on, a possible question:

“Which Porsche Sports Car Is Your Favourite?”

However, should this question still remain unanswered, I will be reviewing, in some detail, in future articles within this website, the entire range of Porsche sports cars which were featured in the memorable era spanning 1948 to 1995.

I hope you join me in my nostalgic travels “down sports car memory lane”.

Academic or Sports Scholarships for Athletes

Sports scholarships or academic scholarships are a strikingly individual feature to most US universities. Outstanding athletes of sports and athletics are provided these to help them financially meet the costs of college studies. Any sportsperson or athlete who has been signed on to a college team not only practices with the team but is a representative of the college or university in national and regional competitions and tournaments.

Why are these scholarships awarded?

There is a checkered history of college sports teams in American universities for generations. Professionally managed, these teams serve to highlight the college’s achievements in academics and sports and act as effective marketing tools to recruit talented students and help finance their studies. Sports scholarships for athletics are given by the university athletic department to outstanding freshman sportspersons who display a strong potential for academics. This search sometimes extends to foreign students who are outstanding in sports and athletics too.

Quantum of scholarship

Usually sports scholarships are given on a yearly basis, with in-built renewal clause for four years, which is the normal duration to complete an undergraduate program in a US university. Annual budgets for scholarships are drawn up each year and these may be awarded to potentially bright students based on several criteria. The scholarship amounts could vary from a few thousand dollars towards study cost or complete funding. Unlike academic scholarships, sports scholarships can sometimes be an unfamiliar and complex process, especially for international students.

Sports categories that attract scholarships

Apart from the majors such as baseball, basketball, tennis, soccer and golf, sports scholarships are granted to athletes who excel in athletics, track & field events, and others like rowing, cross-country, skiing, water polo etc.

A look at some of the requirements for sports scholarships

1. Age
Applicants wishing to play a sport at college or university level must be between 18 and 24 years of age. It is important to remember that most scholarships are awarded during undergraduate studies leading to a Bachelor’s degree. The best time to apply for college sponsorship would be immediately after high school graduation.

2. To be considered eligible for a college sports scholarship, securing admission to the college or university is a must. This effectively means that you should have completed high school successfully. Knowledge of various proficiency test requirements is essential to clear the admission process. The higher the Grade Point Average (GPA) in high school graduation, the greater the chance of admission and increase in scholarship amounts.

3. Most games or sports are included in college scholarships every year, although a few may not be included. Therefore, it is wise to choose the sport you wish to involved in and aim for excellence in that area. Mere participation or involvement will not suffice; competitiveness, performance and an athlete’s overall strength is under scrutiny. Success is all that matters.

4. The early bird gets the worm! Potential athletes are sourced several months before the onset of the official season, so it is of vital importance that you apply to the college or university through accredited agencies that can whet your application and provide invaluable assistance in the admission process.

There are several national athletic associations that govern college and university sports and set guidelines for award of scholarships under various categories. Notable among these are National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA). Full and partial scholarships are offered through these arms in various sports disciplines.

The Jaguar Sports Car

A review of The Jaguar Sports Car, covering development, important features, and technical data of each model in the range, from the SS100 to the E-Type.

In this Article, I offer a nostalgic look at the Jaguar Sports Car, one of an elite group of classic cars, which was manufactured during the period 1936 to 1974.

In 1922, the Swallow Sidecar Company was created. Its initial aim was to produce motorcycle sidecars, and then move into passenger cars, such as the Austin 7 Swallow.

In 1935, the company name was changed to Jaguar Cars, and the improved range of cars was called SS Jaguars.

The Jaguar SS100

The first real Jaguar sports car was the Jaguar SS100, built between 1936-1940. The “100” referred to the fact that it was capable of exceeding 100 mph, something almost unheard of at that time.

Following WW2, the twin overhead cam, straight 6-cylinder, Jaguar XK engine was created.

The Jaguar XK120

In 1948, it was decided to add the new engine to a sports car. The XK120 Jaguar sports car, with the XK engine, was the talk of the 1948 London Motor Show.

The XK120 was a two seater convertible, initially with aluminium panels. The “120” referred to this models top speed of 120 mph.

In 1950, an all-steel version became the norm. A fixed head coupe variant appeared in 1951, plus a drop head coupe in 1953. It used a 3.4 litre XK engine, with an aluminium cylinder head, a compression ratio of 8:1, and two SU carburettors.

In 1949, a prototype XK120 achieved an average speed of 133 mph on a Belgian motorway.

By 1954, when production of these Jaguar cars ended, 7,631 convertibles, 2,678 fixed head coupes, and 1,769 drop head coupes were built.

The Jaguar C-Type

In 1951, the C-Type Jaguar sports car was introduced. It was also designated the XK120-C, where the “C” referred to competition. It was, in essence, a racing car.

It incorporated an aerodynamically designed aluminium body built onto a lightweight tubular space frame chassis. The running gear was that from the XK120.

Its tuned 3.4 litre XK engine had its compression ratio raised to 9:1, but it retained the two SU carburettors.

The engine in later C-Types was fitted with high lift camshafts, and the two SU’s were replaced by three twin-choke Webber carburettors.

In total, there were 53 C-Types built. It was built for racing and, in 1951 and 1953, won the Le Mans 24 hour race.

The Jaguar D-Type

In 1954, Jaguar Cars introduced the D-Type Jaguar sports car.

Like the later versions of the C-Type, it used the 3.4 litre XK engine with three twin-choke Webber carburettors.

The structural design, however, was well ahead of its time. It used a monocoque structure with aluminium body panels, and an aluminium tubing sub frame. This produced a low drag, aerodynamic profile.

The D-Type Jaguar cars were designed for racing:

  • In 1954, a D-Type won the Sebring 12 hour race
  • It won the 1955 and 1956 Le Mans 24 hour race
  • In the 1957 Le Mans, D-Types took five of the top six places – this was the peak of its racing history

The Jaguar XK140

In 1954, the XK120 was succeeded by the XK140 Jaguar sports car.

There were minor styling changes on the new car. It was offered as a two seater convertible, a fixed head coupe, and a drop head coupe.

The standard engine was the XK 3.4 litre, with the special equipment modification as used on the XK120. The power was increased to 190 bhp.

The XK 3.4 litre engine, with the C-Type head (SE model), as used on the XK120, and developing 210 bhp, was offered as an optional extra.

The Jaguar XK150

In 1957, the XK140 was replaced by the XK150 Jaguar sports car. Like its predecessor, it was offered as a two seater convertible, a fixed head coupe and a drop head coupe.

A quick was to distinguish between the two Jaguar cars, XK140 and XK150, was that the latter used a one-piece windscreen, whilst the former used a split screen.

Both the suspension and chassis was as per the XK140, and the steering was rack and pinion.

The basic engine was the XK140 unit, with the C-Type head, producing 190 bhp. However, more common was the 3.4 SE unit, with C-Type head and larger exhaust valves, producing 210 bhp.

In 1958, the 3.4 “S” engine appeared, producing 250 bhp.

In 1960, the 3.4 litre engine was bored out to 3.8 litres, producing 220 bhp. In the 3.8″S” form, it developed 265 bhp.

When production of the XK150 ended in 1960, 2,265 convertibles, 4,445 fixed head coupes, and 2,672 drop head coupes of these fabulous Jaguar cars had been built.

The Jaguar E-Type

In 1961, the enigmatic E-Type Jaguar sports car was launched.

The Series 1 E-Type was powered by a 3.8 litre, triple SU carburetted engine used in the XK150S.

In 1964, the 3.8 litre engine was increased to 4.2 litres. The power and top speed from both these Jaguar cars was the same, although torque was increased.

Up to 1967, the Series 1 was easily recognised by its glass-covered headlights. It was offered as a two seater convertible, or a fixed head coupe. A 2+2 version of the fixed head coupe was available in 1966.

There was a transition series of Jaguar cars built from 1967-1968, between the Series 1 and Series 2 E-Types. This was referred to as the Series 1.5.

By 1968, 15,498 Series 1 3.8, 16,195 Series 1 4.2, and 6,726 Series 1.5 Jaguar cars were built.

In 1969, the Series 2 E-Type Jaguar sports car was introduced. It was easily distinguished from the Series 1 by the open headlights, and wrap-around rear bumper.

Once again, it was offered as a two seater convertible, a fixed head coupe, and a 2+2 variant. It was powered by the XK 4.2 litre engine fitted with three SU carburettors.

By 1971, 4,855 fixed head coupes, 8,628 convertibles, and 5,326 2+2 variants of these Jaguar cars were built.

In 1971, the Series 3 Jaguar E-Type launched. It was offered as a two seater convertible, and a 2+2 version, but the fixed head coupe variant was discontinued.

The Series 3 was powered by a new 5.3 litre, V-12 cylinder, double overhead cam, XK engine. It is easily identifiable by the distinctive front grille and fishtail exhaust.

I feel that the Series 3 was the most desirable of all the E-Types produced by Jaguar Cars.

By 1974, 7,990 convertibles, and 7,297 2+2’s were built.

This marked the end of the E-Type Jaguar sports car.

Perhaps this stroll down memory lane might have answered, or at least shed light on, a possible question:

“Which Jaguar Sports Car Is Your Favourite?”

However, should this question still remain unanswered, I will be reviewing, in some detail, in future articles within this website, the entire range of Jaguar sports cars which were featured in the memorable era spanning 1936 to 1974.

I hope you join me in my nostalgic travels “down sports car memory lane”.